Tag Archives: NPR

May 10, 2020 Blumbers

Believe It

On May 6, 2020 NPR’s Jim Zarroli reported “3.2 Million More Are Out Of Work As Jobless Claims Keep Piling Up”. Over a million Americans are infected with Covid-19.  Over 70, 000 are dead, with thousands dying everyday. Over 33 million people are out of work, with a mind boggling unemployment rate of 14.7 percent. People are not getting the help they need to feed and shelter their families. They cannot get the medical care they need stay alive and no cure in sight. Competent leadership makes a difference. If someone had told you all this bad news on Election Day 2016, you would not have believed it. Will you believe it on Election Day 2020? Vote.

May Flour Baking Bad

Note: A friend sent me 25 pounds of flour in one large bag. I tried to carefully put it into five large plastic bags but flour still got everywhere. The kitchen table looked like something from Scarface or Breaking bad.

Copyright 2020 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

May 3, 2020 Blumbers

Covid-19 News

On May 1, 2020 NPR’s Jeremy Hobson reported two disturbing bits of news. The CDC said over 50,000 citizens have died from Covid-19. The US Dept. of Labor said over 30 million Americans applied for unemployment benefits. We have to stop tying health insurance to employment. Nurses should not have to waste time asking about health insurance coverage while trying get your truly vital signs. National health screening would be a great network to communicate when a new disease appears.

Turkey Traffic

There is not a lot of traffic these days and wildlife is returning everywhere. Last week I got stuck in a traffic jam. I tried to see down the road and saw six turkeys wandering slowly through the cars like sheep on a country road. I had this happen with Canadian geese too. 

Copyright 2020 DJ Cline all rights reserved.

Apr. 21, 2020 Oil Less Than Zero

On April 20, 2020 NPR’s Camila Domonoske NPR reported “Free Fall: Oil Prices Go Negative” “For the first time ever, a key U.S. oil benchmark, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), went below zero on Monday as traders approach a deadline to find buyers.  That means some traders, instead of paying money to buy oil, are paying to get rid of it.  The unprecedented shift comes as global oil markets continue to grapple with a pandemic-driven collapse in demand.  At the start of 2020, a barrel of WTI cost around $60. Prices had dropped swiftly because of the coronavirus, landing at around $18 a barrel on Friday.  Then on Monday they plummeted through the floor. And kept going. WTI for May delivery settled at a negative $37.63 — meaning traders are paying $37.63 to get someone to accept a delivery of a barrel of oil.  The plunging price of WTI is driven by a trading contract deadline; oil traders have until Tuesday to sell off the current futures contract. And they need buyers that are capable of receiving and storing that much oil. Clearly, those buyers are in short supply.  Other types of crude, without a deadline coming up that quickly, have not dropped nearly so sharply.  But in general, crude oil prices are very low and continue to fall. Brent, an international benchmark, is in the mid-$20s and fell more than 9% on Monday.  Oil-producing countries and companies are trying to reduce their output, but they can’t keep pace with the extremely rapid drop in global demand, as the world economy hits the brakes.  That’s creating a massive oversupply of oil and raising concerns about where buyers will be able to physically store it all.”

This story gives you an idea of how weird this timeline is. If you had said this to someone back at the beginning of 2020 they wouldn’t have believed you. Air pollution is falling too. May be we do not need these wealthy oil guys. Maybe this a golden opportunity to switch to electric vehicles. Maybe people will figure out they do  not need a car at all if everything is delivered to your house.

Sadly people are still dying of coronavirus.

Copyright 2020 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Mar. 20, 2020 U.S. Sen. Richard Burr (r-NC) Insider

On March 20, 2020 NPR’s Tim Mak reported “Intelligence Chairman Raised Virus Alarms Weeks Ago, Secret Recording Shows” The chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee warned a small group of well-connected constituents three weeks ago to prepare for dire economic and societal effects of the coronavirus, according to a secret recording obtained by NPR.  The remarks from U.S. Sen. Richard Burr were more stark than any he had delivered in more public forums.  On Feb. 27, 2020 when the United States had 15 confirmed cases of COVID-19, President Trump was tamping down fears and suggesting the virus could be seasonal.  

“It’s going to disappear. One day, It’s like a miracle. It will disappear,” the president said then, before adding, “it could get worse before it gets better. It could maybe go away. We’ll see what happens.”  

On that same day, Burr attended a luncheon held at a social club called the Capitol Hill Club. And he delivered a much more alarming message.  “There’s one thing that I can tell you about this: It is much more aggressive in its transmission than anything that we have seen in recent history,” he said, according to a secret recording of the remarks obtained by NPR. “It is probably more akin to the 1918 pandemic.”  
 
The luncheon had been organized by the Tar Heel Circle, a nonpartisan group whose membership consists of businesses and organizations in North Carolina, the state Burr represents. Membership to join the Tar Heel Circle costs between $500 and $10,000, and promises that members “enjoy interaction with top leaders and staff from Congress, the administration, and the private sector,” according to the group’s website.  In attendance, according to a copy of the RSVP list obtained by NPR, were dozens of invited guests representing companies and organizations from North Carolina. And according to federal records, those companies or their political committees donated more than $100,000 to Burr’s election campaign in 2015 and 2016. (Burr announced previously he was not planning to run for reelection in 2022).  
 
The message Burr delivered to the group was dire.  Thirteen days before the State Department began to warn against travel to Europe, and fifteen days before the Trump administration banned European travelers, Burr warned those in the room to reconsider.  
 
“Every company should be cognizant of the fact that you may have to alter your travel. You may have to look at your employees and judge whether the trip they’re making to Europe is essential or whether it can be done on video conference. Why risk it?” Burr said.  Sixteen days before North Carolina closed its schools due to the threat of Coronavirus, Burr warned it could happen.  
 
“There will be, I’m sure, times that communities, probably some in North Carolina, have a transmission rate where they say, let’s close schools for two weeks, everybody stay home,” he said.
 
And Burr invoked the possibility that the military may be mobilized to combat the Coronavirus. Only now, three weeks later, is the public learning of that prospect.  
 
“We’re going to send a military hospital there, it’s going to be in tents and going to be set up on the ground somewhere,” Burr said at the luncheon. “It’s going to be a decision the president and DoD make. And we’re going to have medical professionals supplemented by local staff to treat the people that need treatment.”  
 
Burr has a unique perspective on the government’s response to a pandemic, and not just because of his role as Intelligence Committee chairman. He helped to write the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA), which forms the framework for the federal response.  
 
But in his public comments about the threat of COVID-19, Burr never offered the kind of precise warning that he delivered to the small group of his constituents.  
 
On Feb. 7, 2020 Burr coauthored an op-ed that laid out the tools that the U.S. government had at its disposal to fight Coronavirus.  
 
“Luckily, we have a framework in place that has put us in a better position than any other country to respond to a public health threat, like the coronavirus,” Burr said in a statement on March 5.  He pressed a CDC official in early March as to why the nation’s pandemic surveillance capabilities had fallen short despite the millions in funding he had helped secure for that purpose through PAHPA.  But despite his longtime interest in bio-hazard threats, his expertise on the subject, and his role as chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, Burr did not warn the public of the government actions he thought might become necessary, like he did at the luncheon on Feb. 27.  
 
Burr’s office did not directly respond to a list of questions sent by NPR.  
 
His spokesperson Caitlin Carroll provided a statement that stressed Burr’s decades-long interest in public health preparedness.  
 
“Since early February, whether in constituent meetings or open hearings, he has worked to educate the public about the tools and resources our government has to confront the spread of coronavirus,” Carroll wrote. “At the same time, he has urged public officials to fully utilize every tool at their disposal in this effort. Every American should take this threat seriously and should follow the latest guidelines from the CDC and state officials.”  
 
One public health expert told NPR that early warnings about a coming health crisis and its effects could have made a difference just a few weeks ago.  
 
“In the interest of public health, we actually need to involve the public. It’s right there in the name. And being transparent, being as clear as possible is very important,” said Jason Silverstein, who lectures at the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School.  
 
“The type of language that could have come out there at the end of February saying here’s what we ought to expect could have, you know, not panicked people, but gotten them all together to have to all prepare,” Silverstein added.
 
Copyright 2020 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Mar. 19, 2020 Li Wenliang

On March 19, 2020 NPR’s Amy Cheng reported “Chinese Authorities Admit Improper Response To Coronavirus Whistleblower” Li Wenliang, the ophthalmologist whose early warnings of the coronavirus earned him a reprimand from Chinese authorities, is finally receiving justice — albeit posthumously. Authorities in the country are apologizing to his family and dropping their reprimand, six weeks after his death from the disease caused by the virus.  Widely known as a whistleblower who spoke up about the outbreak in the city of Wuhan, China, the 34-year-old doctor was initially punished by local authorities. They said he was “spreading rumors” in early January, after he had tried to warn others about the emergence of the novel coronavirus that has now become a global pandemic.  By the time the young doctor died of COVID-19 in early February, the virus had already claimed hundreds of lives. To date, more than 3,000 people have died of the virus in mainland China.  News of his death, coupled with accusations that the government was covering up the outbreak, triggered an avalanche of outrage from a wide cross-section of Chinese society. In response to popular demand, the central government dispatched investigators two days later to look into the circumstances surrounding his police reprimand and death.  

Beijing’s investigators now conclude that Wuhan authorities acted “inadequately” when they reprimanded the late doctor and failed to follow “proper law enforcement procedure.” They did not, however, explain what the correct response should be.  Investigators also characterized his efforts to sound the alarm on the coronavirus as a positive influence that aided in raising awareness.  Shortly after the official findings were published, Wuhan police announced that the two officers responsible for improperly reprimanding Li have been disciplined.

Copyright 2020 DJ Cline All rights reserved. 

Mar. 18, 2020 Food Supply THreatened

March 18, 2020 NPR’s Dan Charles reported “COVID-19 Threatens Food Supply Chain As Farms Worry About Workers Falling Ill”. As Americans scattered to the privacy of their homes this week to avoid spreading the coronavirus, the opposite scene was playing out in the Mexican city of Monterrey.  A thousand or more young men arrived in the city, as they do most weeks of the year, filling up the cheap hotels, standing in long lines at the U.S. Consulate to pick up special H-2A visas for temporary agricultural workers, then gathering in a big park to board buses bound for farms in the United States.  

“I spoke with people going to North Carolina, Kentucky, Michigan, Mississippi,” says Justin Flores, vice president of the AFL-CIO’s Farm Labor Organizing Committee, who was in Monterrey for meetings. “[They were] headed to destinations all over the country to provide really important labor that supports the backbone of our economy, which is the agricultural industry.”  About 250,000 workers came to the U.S. on H-2A visas last year, the majority of them from Mexico. They’ve become an increasingly important piece of America’s food industry.  

Late in the day on Monday, the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City announced that it is suspending nonemergency visa appointments because of concerns for the health of its employees and visitors.  At the same time, though, the embassy notified farm employers that many — perhaps most — of these farm workers still can get their visas, because they participated in the program last year and don’t require an in-person appointment at the consulate.  

Ryan Ogburn, visa director at wafla, which helps farms manage the flow of H-2A workers in the Pacific Northwest, says that 85-90% of their workers will qualify for this exemption. Meanwhile, influential farm organizations in the U.S. are pushing the Trump administration to ease the entry of more guest workers.  The continuing availability of agricultural workers illustrates the paradox of America’s food supply in the age of COVID-19.  

One end of the food supply chain has been completely upended as restaurants go dark and consumers prowl half-empty aisles of supermarkets. Food producers, though, are operating almost as normal — at least for now.  Slaughterhouses, dairies and vegetable producers say that they are open for business, ready to feed the nation. Howard Roth, president of the National Pork Producers Council, wrote in a statement that “telecommuting is not an option for us; we are reporting for work as always.”  

Food distributors and wholesalers in the middle of that supply chain, meanwhile, are trying to perform logistical miracles, redirecting truckloads of food from shuttered businesses toward places where people now crave it — mainly grocery stores.  “There’s nothing ‘as usual’ anymore,” says Mark Levin, CEO of M. Levin and Co., a fruit and vegetable wholesaler in Philadelphia. Levin normally sells lots of bananas to schools and restaurants, and “unfortunately, all those people, last minute, say, ‘I’m sorry, I can’t use this fruit. You must take it back, or don’t deliver it.’ And that’s tough, because we’ve already got it in the system ripening and ready to sell,” Levin says.  Can he send those bananas instead to grocery stores that are out of stock? “Yes, but at a reduced price,” Levin says.  The problem, Levin says, is that different customers want slightly different things. Schools and other institutions buy boxes of loose “petite” bananas, with 150 bananas in a box. “Grocery stores don’t want those,” he says.  

At least people are still eating. Drinking is a different story.  “We’re losing a lot of occasions, regular things like birthday parties or weddings, where people normally get together,” says Stephen Rannekleiv, who follows the beverage sector for RaboResearch Food & Agribusiness.  

“For the beverage world, those are occasions for consumption. We’re losing some of those,” Rannekleiv says. He notes that in China, overall demand for alcoholic beverages has fallen by about 10% during the coronavirus crisis.  There’s an even bigger worry hanging over the food industry: The prospect of workers testing positive for COVID-19.  When it happens, the response likely will go beyond sending that individual home — although that alone can be catastrophic to field workers who are paid, in part, based on their production. 

This week, the United Farm Workers union called on employers to expand paid sick leave for workers.  Vegetable growers are considering policies that would require quarantine for everyone who worked in close proximity to the infected person. That could easily include two dozen or more people. Workers on H-2A visas often live together, sharing kitchens and bedrooms and traveling together on buses. The virus could spread quickly, and measures to stop it will be extremely costly.  According to Steve Alameda, a vegetable grower in Yuma, Ariz., losing an entire 30-person work crew overnight will be extremely disruptive. Farmworkers already are hard to find, and replacing so many people immediately could prove impossible.  

“We’ve got enough disruption,” Alameda says. “We don’t need to disrupt our food supply, that would be really catastrophic.”

Copyright 2020 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

mar. 17, 2020 Deaths Of DEspair

On March 17, 2020 NPR’s Jim Zarroli  reported “‘Deaths Of Despair’ Examines The Steady Erosion Of U.S. Working-Class Life” The 20th century was an era of rapid and unprecedented improvement in public health all over the world.  

In the United States alone, a person born in 1900 could expect to live to 49; by 2000, that person’s great grandchildren were likely to see their 77th birthdays. Reaching old age is no longer an anomaly, and that is true for people of every race, ethnicity and social class.  

Around 2000, however, came a stark and dramatic reversal of that trend, one documented in the disturbing book Deaths of Despair and the Future of Capitalism, by the husband-and-wife team of Anne Case and Angus Deaton, who won the 2015 Nobel Prize for Economics. For white Americans between 45 and 54, average life expectancy was no longer increasing; in fact, it was actually declining — in a pattern seen almost nowhere else on Earth. If increases in life expectancy had continued at the same rate, some 600,000 more Americans would now be alive, Case and Deaton write.

This reversal has come almost entirely among white Americans without a four-year college degree, who make up 38 percent of the U.S. working-age population. “Something is making life worse, especially for less educated whites,” Case and Deaton write.  

Much of the decline stems from higher rates of suicide, opioid overdoses and alcohol-related illnesses — the “deaths of despair” that Case and Deaton refer to. Americans “are drinking themselves to death, or poisoning themselves with drugs, or shooting or hanging themselves.”

They’re also no longer making progress against heart disease, due to higher rates of obesity and tobacco use. While U.S. smoking rates have declined precipitously over the years, they remain stubbornly high in states such as Mississippi, Kentucky, Alabama and Tennessee. Smoking rates are actually rising among middle-aged white women who lack a Bachelor’s degree.  The America that Case and Deaton write about is an intensely class-bound place, where the less-educated experience higher rates of severe mental disease, have more trouble with the “instrumental activities of daily life,” such as walking, and report more pain. Chronic pain is now more common among the middle-aged than the elderly, they write.  

By contrast, Americans with a Bachelor’s degree live longer, enjoy more stable families, report happier lives and abuse opioids and alcohol less often. They even vote more. Once, suicide was more common among the educated; today, the reverse is true.  

Case and Deaton don’t shy away from the likely cause of this public-health scandal: The collapse of the steady, decently paid manufacturing jobs that once gave meaning and purpose to working-class life. 

They write:  “Destroy work and, in the end, working-class life cannot survive. It is the loss of meaning, of dignity, of pride, and of self-respect that comes with the loss of marriage and of community that brings on despair, not just or even primarily the loss of money.” 

Men without good jobs make lousy husbands and poor fathers. “They may have children from a series of relationships, some or none of whom they know and some of whom are living with other men. Such fractured and fragile relationships bring little daily joy or comfort and do little to assure middle-aged men that they are living a good life,” Case and Deaton write.  

In such a world, marriages break up, and social bonds fray. 

The institutions that once provided ballast to working-class life — unions and mainstream churches — have proven largely ineffectual against the tectonic forces now reshaping the global economy.  

Case and Deaton do a great job making the case that something has gone grievously wrong. The solutions they propose, such as repairing the U.S. safety net and overhauling the broken U.S. health-care system, are worthy ones, but somehow don’t feel up to addressing the gargantuan social problems they spell out so well.  

Something more will be needed to address the steady erosion of working-class life, with all the heartbreak and despair it’s engendered.

Copyright 2020 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Mar. 15, 2020 Blumbers

Corona Virus Covid-19

On December 21, 2018 seventeen-year-old Avi Schiffmann in Seattle started a site about the coronavirus in China called nCoV2019.live. The site tracked deaths and numbers of cases locally and globally. It talked about the number of people who have recovered. “I basically just wrote a script that every minute or so just goes to those websites and downloads the latest information.”

On January 10, 2020 NPR’s Pien Huang reported “CDC to Screen For New Strain Of Coronavirus”. Originally called 2019-nCoV, it was spreading in the Hubei province city of Wuhan. More than forty people were diagnosed with mysterious viral lung infections since early December. It may have originally spread from bats to an unknown animal and then to humans. Experts think the infection probably came from a seafood and live animal market with people touching or eating animals that carry the virus. These individuals then developed viral symptoms including fever, breathing issues and lesions on their lungs. Approximately two percent of mainly older humans die from it.

The coronavirus family includes six other strains known to infect humans. Four of those strains cause common colds, and two (SARS and MERS) have caused major pandemics. All share a signature look under a strong microscope: a circle with spikes coming off the surface, ending with small blobs — hence the “corona.” “Kind of looks like the peaks of a crown,” says Carolyn Machamer, a virologist and cell biologist at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

On January 24, 2020 NPR’s Emily Vaughan reported “Coronavirus 101: What We Do — And Don’t — Know About The Outbreak Of COVID-19” The corona virus called 2019 novel coronavirus was renamed COVID-19 by the United Nations World Health Organization. 

The virus can spread from human to human. Early symptoms include fever and dry cough. Some people also experience fatigue, headaches and, less frequently, diarrhea. Shortness of breath can develop in about 5 days. Symptoms in severe cases include pneumonia (which makes it harder to breathe) and kidney failure. People over age 40 who died had significant underlying conditions” like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Some eighty percent of cases were mild with twenty percent of more severe cases requiring hospitalization. Two percent could be fatal.

Chinese government officials temporarily shut down transportation to and from Wuhan by bus, subway, ferry, airplane and train, according to Chinese state media. At least twelve other Chinese cities have limited travel as well. The travel ban came just days before the biggest holiday on the Chinese calendar, the Lunar New Year. Despite that COVID-19 spread from China to  the U.S., Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. 

On Mar. 4, 2020 NPR’s Stacey Vanek Smith reported “The Corona Bump” “Coronavirus continues to wreak havoc on the global economy and on businesses, disrupting manufacturing all over the world.”

That same day NPR’s Bill Chappell reported “Coronavirus Deaths In Washington State And California, Where Gov. Declares Emergency” The most recent death is connected to a cruise ship that traveled from the U.S. to Mexico. Officials in Placer County, Calif., announced that an elderly resident has become the first person to die from the illness in California. The patient, who was not identified, had underlying health conditions, according to the county. The patient tested positive for the coronavirus illness on March 3, 2020 and “was likely exposed during international travel from Feb. 11-21 on a Princess cruise ship that departed from San Francisco to Mexico.”

On Mar. 6, 2020 NPR’s Martin Kaste reported “U.S. Hospitals Prepare For A COVID-19 Wave” The  World Health Organization’s Director General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said “We’re concerned that some countries have either not taken this seriously enough or have decided there is nothing they can do. … This is not a drill. This is not the time to give up. This is not a time for excuses. This is a time for pulling out all the stops.” 

Large numbers of people may overwhelm hospitals. The American Hospital Association says the total number of Intensive Care Unit beds is about 65,000. Richard Waldhorn is a pulmonary critical care physician who’s studied hospital preparedness for the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. He says government planning assumptions based on past flu pandemics suggest a surge in demand for intensive care that could range somewhere between 200,000 thousand and 2.9 million patients.

Around the world, people suspected of being infected were being quarantined on ships, military bases and their own homes for at least two weeks. The public was advised to practice social distancing by staying at least six feet apart.  Sporting events and other large gatherings like conventions are being cancelled and hurting local economies. People are losing their jobs and causing a downturn.

Mar. 6, 2020 NPR Kelsey Snell, Domenico Montanaro, Scott Horsley, and Asma Khalid reported “Stock Market Slide Could Reshape Election; Biden Faces Test In South Carolina Primary” the stock markets around the world began to fall thousands of points because of disruption by COVID-19.

On March 9, 2020 MSNBC’s Steve Benen reported “Trump struggles to explain why he disbanded his global health team”. “It was two years ago when Trump ordered the shutdown of the White House National Security Council’s entire global health security unit. NBC News had a good report on this recently, noting that the president’s decision “to downsize the White House national security staff — and eliminate jobs addressing global pandemics — is likely to hamper the U.S. government’s response to the coronavirus.”

On March 11, 2020 NPR’s Jason Beaubien reported COVID-19 Is Officially A Pandemic, Declares World Health Organization. The head of the WHO Tedros, Adhanom Ghebreyesus, today he said that the WHO is making this designation because they expect that things are going to get worse.

On Mar. 13, 2020 NPR’s Avie Schneider reported US President Donald Trump belatedly declared a state emergency. Stock markets fell around the world. Trading was halted as the Dow plunged 2300 points. The bull market became a bear market. “Just on Monday, the stock market had its worst drop since 2008 amid fears that the growing spread of coronavirus would push the global economy into recession.”

On Mar. 14, 2020 NPR’s Maria Godoy reported “Flattening A Pandemic’s Curve: Why Staying Home Now Can Save Lives”. As the coronavirus continues to spread in the U.S., more and more businesses are sending employees off to work from home. Public schools are closing, universities are holding classes online, major events are getting canceled and cultural institutions are shutting their doors. Even Disney World and Disneyland closed. The disruption of daily life for many Americans is real and significant — but so are the potential life-saving benefits of isolation.

It’s all part of an effort to do what epidemiologists call flattening the curve of the pandemic. The idea is to increase social distancing in order to slow the spread of the virus, so that you don’t get a huge spike in the number of people getting sick all at once. If that were to happen, there wouldn’t be enough hospital beds or mechanical ventilators for everyone who needs them, and the U.S. hospital system would be overwhelmed. That’s already happening in Italy.

Hope all this helps figure out what happened.

Copyright 2020 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Jan. 19, 2020 Blumbers

Second Hottest Year

On January 15, 2020 NPR’s Rebecca Hersher reported “2019 Was The 2nd-Hottest Year On Record, According To NASA And NOAA” Hersher wrote:

 
“Last year was the second hottest on record globally, according to the latest climate data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and NASA.
 
It’s the latest confirmation that the Earth is steadily getting hotter — the planet has already warmed about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit (or almost 1 degree Celsius) compared with in the mid-20th century — and that robust greenhouse gas emissions are causing global warming to continue unabated.”
 
Gavin Schmidt, the director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies said “The warming up until now since the 1970s has been quite close to linear,” he explains, so “you’d imagine we’d cross 1.5 [degrees Celsius] in around 2035. But of course that depends on what we do with emissions, and we’re not able to tell you looking at the past how society will react.” 
 
By 2035? We do not have much time. Time to vote.
 
Note: Robots delete all comments, unread.
 
Copyright 2020 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Dec. 8, 2019 Blumbers

Teen Decade: Longevity

On December 3, 2019 NPR Morning Edition’s David Greene reported “Life Expectancy Study Jolts Assumptions Made About Life In America.” He talked about a Journal of the American Medical Association study  by Dr. Steven Woolf that says U.S. life expectancy is declining, and is not keeping pace with other wealthy countries. He looked at life expectancy, mortality across the United States between 1959 and 2017. Many will not live long enough to retire.

“In fact, our analysis intentionally looked at the data for all 50 states to try to locate where in the country this was happening the most. And what we found was that the increase was largest in the industrial Midwest, central Appalachia and northern New England but particularly in the Ohio Valley. That was like ground zero for this phenomenon. We found, for example, that of all the excess deaths that occur in the United States due to this increase in mortality, one-third of them occurred in four states – Ohio, Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Indiana. Those four states accounted for one-third of the excess deaths between 2010 and 2017.”

“But one very attractive explanation is the economy. This is the Rust Belt and the area where – at the time when this decline began, the 1980s and ’90s, is when we saw a major transformation in the economy, the loss of manufacturing jobs, coal mines closing, steel mills closing and families and communities exposed to many years of economic stresses. And we think they’re taking their toll on folks’ health.”

Woolf closed by saying “… we need to change our policy priorities in this country and focus more on improving the social and economic conditions for the middle class if we’re going to see a reversal to this trend.”

On December 9, 2019 NPR Morning Edition’s Jason Beaubien reported “There’s A New Kind Of Inequality. And It’s Not About Income” about the the U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report. “Achim Steiner, the UNDP administrator, sums up the problem this way: “an increasing number of young people are educated, connected and stuck with no ladder of choices to move up.””

“What people perhaps 30, 40 years ago were led to believe and often saw around them,” Steiner says, “was that if you worked hard, you could escape poverty.” Yet in many countries today, he says upward social mobility is “simply not occurring” anymore.”

“UNDP’s Pedro Conceição, who oversees the Human Development Report, says their research shows that these global inequities are having huge impacts on individual lives.”

“If we look at what happened to a child born in the year 2000 in a low human development country compared to a child born in a very high human development country, there’s a 17% probability that the child [from the low development country] is not alive today, 20 years after she was born,” Conceição says. “While in a very high human development country, there’s only a 1% chance that the child is not alive today.”

Ultimately it is still about money. If you were born in a rich place twenty years ago, you not only get to grow up but go to college. Meanwhile poor people are seventeen times more likely to die. People are demonstrating around the world because they need money for education, housing and food to live.

“Inequalities in human development remain high and widespread,” he notes.

On a similar note, there is a new film called Dark Water starring Mark Ruffalo. It is about the true story of Cincinnati lawyer Robert Bilott who battled DuPont over toxic water pollution in West Virginia.

Let us make life less stressful for each other. People should live long enough to have a future. I guess there is something to that live long and prosper thing after all.

Copyright 2019 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Nov. 27, 2019 Amazon Safety

On Nov. 27, 2019 on NPR’s Morning Edition’s Will Evans reported “Amazon Warehouse Employees Face Serious Injuries”. Host Steve Inskeep was telling the audience that Amazon gave NPR money but the staff was running the story anyway. It was about unsafe working conditions at Amazon warehouses. About a minute into the story it stops and is switched to a story about refugees. I immediately checked on the web and had real trouble finding the story. Ars Technica is running a similar story. In the public interest, I finally found a transcript as seen below.

November 27, 2019 

Amazon Warehouse Employees Face Serious Injuries, Report Says  

A report from the Center for Investigative Reporting and The Atlantic reveals how Amazon warehouse employees are dealing with crippling injuries. NPR’s Steve Inskeep talks to reporter Will Evans.  

STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:  What is the human cost of Amazon’s convenience? The company delivers products from its warehouses to your door in days or even hours. Investigative reporters have found that drive for speed leaves Amazon warehouse employees with chronic pain and crippling injuries. They suffer serious injuries at more than double the industry average. We will tell you now that Amazon is a financial supporter of NPR News, and we are raising these questions about Amazon all the same, which is how it should work. The investigation came from the Center for Investigative Reporting, which publishes the program Reveal. Will Evans is one of the reporters leading this coverage. He joins us via Skype. Good morning.  

WILL EVANS: Good morning.  
 
INSKEEP: I want to work through one case that you examined here in a warehouse in Indiana. What happened there?  
 
EVANS: So there’s a worker named Phillip Lee Terry. He’s a 59-year-old grandfather. He was working on a forklift and when the – it fell on him, basically, and crushed him to death. There was a Indiana OSHA inspector who came in to investigate the death and found that there were some serious safety lapses.  
 
INSKEEP: OSHA – that’s for workplace safety. Now, when you talk about safety lapses, is that connected, in some way, to the drive to fulfill orders quickly?  EVANS: Well, we found broadly that the drive to fulfill orders quickly is injuring, you know, hundreds, thousands of workers at a very – at very high injury rates. In this particular case, the problem seemed to be that he wasn’t properly trained. That’s what the OSHA inspector said. That’s what some of the other workers there said. And it was interesting, that case, because Indiana was, at the same time, bidding for Amazon’s second headquarters to come to the state. And the inspector said he got political pressure to back off – to back off the case. And in the end, Indiana ended up deleting the safety citations.  
 
INSKEEP: Wow. OK. So we have so much money on the line that it is difficult to look into this. What is it about the nature of fulfilling orders quickly in an Amazon warehouse that gets people hurt?  
 
EVANS: So the workers are held to these very high production quotas, processing hundreds of items an hour for up to 12-hour shifts. They know that if they don’t keep up, they can be fired. And so they’re basically sacrificing their bodies either through repetitive stress injuries or strains and sprains. The speed is – seems to be the key element. And the safety – the former safety managers at Amazon that we talked to said they basically can’t protect the workers when the production demands are so high.  
 
INSKEEP: Let’s listen to one worker, Candice Dixon, who had a job in Southern California.  (SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)  CANDICE DIXON: For Amazon, all they care about is getting the job done and getting it out fast and not realizing how it it’s affecting us and our own bodies.  
 
INSKEEP: Aren’t Amazon warehouses, though, supposed to have the very latest technology – robots to help retrieve packages, things that are supposed to make this a much easier job?  
 
EVANS: Yeah. It’s interesting. The robots bring the package and bring the items to the workers, so the workers don’t have to walk around for miles to find things. But because that’s so efficient and the robots are so fast, the workers are held to much higher production quotas. So they have to go faster and faster. And as one former safety manager told me, humans are basically tapping out. They can’t keep up.  
 
INSKEEP: They’re trying to turn people into robots, and they can’t quite do it.  
 
EVANS: That’s right.  
 
INSKEEP: Mr. Evans, thank you so much.  
 
EVANS: Thanks for having me.  
 
INSKEEP: Will Evans is a reporter for the Reveal team at the Center for Investigative Reporting.  
 

Copyright 2019 DJ Cline

Apr. 21, 2019 Blumbers

Falternative

On April 16, 2019 Dave Davies of NPR’s Fresh Air interviewed Bill McKibben about his new book on climate change “Falter: Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out?” Middle East and Indian inland countries are experiencing heat wave temperatures reaching 129 degrees Fahrenheit for weeks, making life dangerous or impossible. The coasts might be cooler but are experiencing more destructive storms. By 2050 humans will only be able to perform seventy percent of the work they use to do, including raising food. Drought is forcing farmers to move north as refugees and wildfires to wipe out whole towns. When it does rain, it floods more and faster. “I mean, in the end, this isn’t a fight between Republicans and Democrats or environmentalists and industry. It’s, in the end, a fight between human beings and physics. And physics is poor at compromise, doesn’t negotiate easily. We’re going to have to do what physics demands.”

Copyright 2019 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Jan. 25, 2017 Awful Thawful

On Jan. 25, 2018 NPR’s Michaeleen Doucleff reported “Is There A Ticking Time Bomb Under The Arctic?” Doucleff talked with Dr. Thomas Douglas, a geochemist at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Charles Miller, a chemist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. They are worried that climate change is causing arctic permafrost to melt and release methane and carbon into the atmosphere. This could dramatically increase global warming. There is also a possibility that a bacteria or virus could thaw and infect humans.

Copyright 2018 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Jan. 18, 2018 Bambi Zombie

On Jan. 18, 2018 NPR’s Sam Brasch reported “Concerns Grow That Infections From ‘Zombie Deer’ Meat Can Jump To Humans” Apparently some deer are suffering from Chronic Wasting Disease similar to Mad Cow disease. Matt Dunfee, head of the Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance in Fort Collins, Colorado said “The vast majority of the time hunters find out their animal has CWD, they’re shocked, because it looked great,” he says. “It was moving just like everything else. It had great body fat.”

Copyright 2018 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

 

Dec. 23, 2017 American Poverty

On Dec. 23, 2017 NPR’s Sasha Ingber reported “U.N. Investigator On Extreme Poverty Issues A Grim Report — On The U.S.” Philip Alston, United Nations special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights recently issued his report. Poverty exists mainly with women and children of all races. “Contrasts between the rich and poor abound. While funding for the IRS to audit wealthy taxpayers has been reduced, efforts to identify welfare fraud are being greatly intensified,” he says. The wealthy also stand to benefit from advances in technology, while robots and automation threaten to take away jobs from people in low-skill labor positions, he says.

Meanwhile, the poor may not even be able to use the Internet. Alston states that nearly half of all people living in West Virginia lack access to high speed Internet. “When I asked the governor’s office in West Virginia about efforts to expand broadband access in poor, rural communities, it could only point to a 2010 broadband expansion effort,” he says in the statement. It’s not that they don’t want it; half of the state’s counties have reportedly applied for broadband assistance. The U.N. considers the Internet to be a human right for its ability to support education, drive development and foster citizen engagement, among other things.

“In 2016, 40 million people — more than one in eight citizens — lived in poverty, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. “The reality is that the United States now has probably the lowest degree of social mobility among all the rich countries,” Alston says. “And if you are born poor, guess where you’re going to end up —- poor.”

Alston also criticized the Republican tax reform bill that just passed in Congress. He says it “stakes out America’s bid to become the most unequal society in the world.”

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Dec. 22, 2017 Homeless Memorial Day

On Dec. 21, 2017, NPR’s Camila Domonoske reported “Cities Across The U.S. Honor ‘Homeless Persons’ Memorial Day.””They pass quietly, often out of sight, their deaths more likely an unconfirmed rumor to those who knew them on the street than the basis for a news story,””Many never get a funeral. Some of their bodies go unclaimed at the morgue.” Homeless groups across the country held vigils reading the names of the homeless people who have died over the past year.

On Feb. 17, 2015, Mother Jones reporter Scott Carrier wrote an article “The Shockingly Simple, Surprisingly Cost-Effective Way to End Homelessness” about the Salt Lake City approach for the homeless. They spend $10,000 a year to house, feed and care for them. This is cheaper than spending $20,000 putting them in jail or hospital emergency rooms.

Carrier said “We could, as a country, look at the root causes of homelessness and try to fix them. One of the main causes is that a lot of people can’t afford a place to live. They don’t have enough money to pay rent, even for the cheapest dives available. Prices are rising, inventory is extremely tight, and the upshot is, as a new report by the Urban Institute finds, that there’s only 29 affordable units available for every 100 extremely low-income households. So we could create more jobs, redistribute the wealth, improve education, socialize health care, basically redesign our political and economic systems to make sure everybody can afford a roof over their heads.” Or, we could give a trillion dollar tax break to the richest one percent.
New York University psychologist Sam Tsemberis had an idea. “Okay,” Tsemberis recalls thinking, “they’re schizophrenic, alcoholic, traumatized, brain damaged. What if we don’t make them pass any tests or fill out any forms? They aren’t any good at that stuff. Inability to pass tests and fill out forms was a large part of how they ended up homeless in the first place. Why not just give them a place to live and offer them free counseling and therapy, health care, and let them decide if they want to participate? Why not treat chronically homeless people as human beings and members of our community who have a basic right to housing and health care?””We have the cure for homelessness—it’s housing. What we lack is political will.”
Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Dec. 14, 2017 Net Neutrality

On Dec. 14, 2017 NPR’s Alina Selyukh reported “FCC Repeals ‘Net Neutrality’ Rules For Internet Providers.” “U.S. telecom regulators have voted to repeal so-called net neutrality rules, which restrict the power of Internet service providers to influence loading speeds for specific websites or apps.” The decision was supported by Republican FCC Chairman Ajit Pai and FCC Commissioner Mike O’Rielly. It was opposed by Democratic FCC Commissioner Mignon Clyburn. Keep sending your messages supporting Net Neutrality to them and your elected representatives. This a First Amendment issue. Speak while you still can.

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline Al rights reserved.

Dec. 11, 2017 Discrimination Against Women

On Dec. 11, 2017 NPR’s Joe Nee reported “Poll: Discrimination Against Women Is Common Across Races, Ethnicities, Identities.” An NPR survey was put together by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Harvard Chan School. ” A majority (56 percent) of women believe that where they live, women are paid less than men for equal work. And roughly a third (31 percent) say they’ve been discriminated against when applying for jobs because they are women.”

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Dec. 6, 2017 West Coast Homeless

On Dec. 6, 2017 NPR’s Pam Fessler reported “Homeless Population Rises, Driven By West Coast Affordable-Housing Crisis” The number of homeless people is rising on the West Coast particularly in Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle, San Diego and Sacramento. Many of them are veterans. “Nan Roman, president and CEO of the National Alliance to End Homelessness, was surprised the overall numbers weren’t better.””Roman says it’s increasingly difficult to find available units in some areas of the country to house the homeless. And she worries the problem could get worse. Housing advocates note that the Trump administration has proposed cutting low-income housing subsidies, which many people rely on to stay housed. They also believe the tax bill working its way through Congress could discourage investment in new affordable housing construction by reducing tax credits used by developers.”

Copyright 2017 J Cline All rights reserved.

Dec. 4, 2017 Do It Anyway

On Dec. 4, 2017 NPR’s Lulu Garcia-Navarro reported “In ‘Bombshell,’ The Double Identity Of Hollywood Star Hedy Lamarr.” This new documentary is about Lamarr’s careers as actor and inventor. Escaping the Nazis in the 1930s, Lamar became a Hollywood star. She also invented a frequency hopping technique used for weapons and telecommunications.

Alexandra Dean, the director of “Bombshell” said “Even if you feel that you’ve been kicked in the teeth, and the world never gave you the applause you deserved because you did something amazing and it was not recognized, do it anyway. Do it anyway because it’s in changing the world that you’ll find meaning at the end of your life. It’s in trying to make your mark. And I love that, and I think everybody should listen to that – you know, that it’s in the work, the doing, that you’ll find meaning, not in the applause.”

Do it anyway.

Copyright 2017 J Cline All rights reserved.

Dec. 3, 2017 Blumbers

Moody’s Blues

On Dec. 3, 2017 NPR’s Nathan Rott reported “Credit Rating Agency Issues Warning On Climate Change To Cities.” Moody’s “One of the largest credit rating agencies in the country is warning U.S. cities and states to prepare for the effects of climate change or risk being downgraded.” “In the Midwest, “impacts on agriculture are forecast to be among the most significant economic effects of climate change,” the report says. The Southwest is projected to become more vulnerable to extreme heat, drought, rising sea levels and wildfires. Rising sea levels and their effect on coastal infrastructure is the biggest forecast impact on the Northeast.”

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Nov. 29, 2017 Robot Origami Muscles

On Nov. 29, 2017 NPR’s Merrit Kennedy reported “Robot Muscles Inspired By Origami Lift 1000 Times Their Weight” about Harvard Engineering professor Robert Wood’s and Daniela Rus, director of MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. “The artificial muscles work by encasing in a plastic “skin” a folded origami-like “skeleton” capable of expanding and contracting. The device expands as water or air is pushed into it, and contracts as the water or air is pumped out.” This technique would be a safer, softer technology for the disabled.

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Nov. 25, 2017 Uneven Sea Level Rise

On Nov. 25, 2017 NPR’s Christopher Joyce reported “The Sea Level Threat To Cities Depends On Where The Ice Melts — Not Just How Fast” about  a new study from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab. Eric Larour thinks the sea level will rise more in some places like New York and Washington DC than others. “What happens is when you change the mass of the ice, the modification itself makes the wobble change, and this in turn changes the shape of the ocean on the Earth.” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s William Sweet said “Right here on the Severn River, we are somewhere that’s very likely to experience 25 to 50 percent more than the global average” of sea level rise.” “The land along Louisiana’s coast is sinking, for example, as are parts of the East Coast.” “So it really matters when you start planning … ‘I’m going to be prepared for one meter of sea level rise.’ Well, you might want to be prepared for four or five feet.”

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Oct. 19, 2017 California Politics And Harassment

On Oct. 19, 2017 NPR’s Marisa Lago and Scott Shafer reported ” ‘Enough’: California’s Women In Politics Call Out Sexual Harassment.” Lobbyist Samantha Corbin open letter said “Often these men hold our professional fates in their hands. They are bosses, gatekeepers, and contacts. Our relationships with them are crucial to our personal success,” they wrote. “We don’t want to jeopardize our future, make waves, or be labeled ‘crazy,’ ‘troublemaker,’ or ‘asking for it.’ Worse, we’re afraid when we speak up that no one will believe us, or we will be blacklisted.”

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Oct. 5, 2017 Life Expectancy

On Oct. 5, 2017 NPR’s Emily Sohn reported “People Are Living Longer In Places You Wouldn’t Expect” Christopher Murray, of the University of Washington’s Institute for Health talked about the new study. “Since 1970, he says, worldwide life expectancy has increased by 14 years, from 58 to 72. And since 1990, the proportion of children who die before their fifth birthday has dropped from nine percent to four percent.”

Murray said in the country of Niger “To keep its little kids alive, the government has set ambitious goals, including a policy instituted in 2006 that offers free health care to women and children. There’s also a national program to train more community health workers. As a result, more children are vaccinated for diseases and treated for major childhood killers like diarrhea.” So if you have free health care, you live longer?

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Sep. 28, 2017 Jet Pack Contest

On Sep. 28, 2017 NPR’s Glenn McDonald reported “Wish You Could Soar? A $2 Million Contest Aims For Personal Flying Device”. There is a contest for creating a jetpack.. “According to the GoFly Prize competition rules, the flying device just needs to be safe, compact, relatively quiet, and able to provide vertical (or “near vertical”) takeoff and landing capability in urban environments.” Great. Now we will have distracted people flying around while on their phones.

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Sep. 19, 2017 Plastic Seafood

On Sep. 19, 2017 NPR’s Ken Christensen reported “Guess What’s Showing Up In Our Shellfish? One Word: Plastics.” Vancouver Island University’s Sarah Dudas talked about the increasing amount of plastics in shellfish. She said “”So when you eat clams and oysters, you’re eating plastics as well,”

Peter Ross of the Vancouver Aquarium’s Ocean Pollution Research Program said “We’ve long known that plastic and debris can be a problem for ocean life,” “The research is adding to the evidence of a problem that touches every corner of the planet: from the depths of the ocean abyss to the surface waters of the Arctic to an area in the middle of the Pacific Ocean now known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Scientists think plastic pollution in the ocean could outweigh the fish there by 2050.”

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Aug. 7, 2017 Google Women

On Aug. 7, 2017 Motherboard’s Louise Matsakis reported “Google Employee’s Anti-Diversity Manifesto Goes ‘Internally Viral” While the document itself contains the thoughts of just one Google employee (James Damore), the context in which they were shared—Google is currently being investigated by the Department of Labor for its gender pay gap and Silicon Valley has been repeatedly exposed as a place that discriminates against women and people of color—as well as the private and public response from its workforce are important.”

According to NPR’s Bill Chappell reporting in “Google Grapples With Fallout After Employee Slams Diversity Efforts”

  • Women make up 25 percent of the company’s leadership
  • Women hold 20 percent of technology jobs
  • Overall, 31 percent of Google’s employees are female
  • 56 percent of employees are white; 35 percent are Asian
  • 4 percent are Hispanic, 4 percent are mixed-race, and 2 percent are black

Google is not alone with this problem. The test for diversity is not reading public relations press releases, but direct observation. Walk into a company’s offices. How many women do you see? How many over forty in leadership? How many are making six figures? If it is not half the population, the company has some work to do. Start hiring women and pay them market rates.

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Aug. 4, 2017 Wage Increase Not Worth A Dime

On Aug. 4, 2017, NPR’s Scott Neuman reported “U.S. Economy Adds 209,000 Jobs In July; Unemployment Dips To 4.3 Percent” but “Average hourly wages rose by 9 cents, to $26.36.” In other words real wages have not gone up a dime. Having a job and having a job that helps pay the bills are two different things.

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Jul. 19, 2017 Climate Change Fewer People

On Jul. 19, 2017, NPR’s Tori Whitley reported “Want To Slow Global Warming? Researchers Look To Family Planning” A study by Kimberly Nicholas and others at Lund University in Sweden concluded one way to reduce CO2 gas emissions is to have fewer children. Having one fewer child (an average for developed countries of 58.6 metric ton CO2-equivalent (tCO2e) emission reductions per year.

On Aug. 19, 2017, NPR’s Jennifer Ludden reported “Should We Be Having Kids In The Age Of Climate Change?” Travis Rieder of James Madison University said 4 degrees of warming would be “largely uninhabitable for humans.””Here’s a provocative thought: Maybe we should protect our kids by not having them,” According to nonprofit Conceivable Future’s Meghan Kallman, “the climate crisis is a reproductive crisis.”

“Oregon State University researchers have calculated the savings from all kinds of conservation measures: driving a hybrid, driving less, recycling, using energy-efficient appliances, windows and light bulbs. For an American, the total metric tons of carbon dioxide saved by all of those measures over an entire lifetime of 80 years: 488. By contrast, the metric tons saved when a person chooses to have one fewer child: 9,441.”

Note to young people planning their future in Oregon.

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline.com All rights reserved.

Jul. 15, 2017 China Teleports Cryptography

On Jul. 15, 2017 NPR’s Tori Whitley reported “Beam Me Up, Scotty … Sort Of. Chinese Scientists ‘Teleport’ Photon To Space” “Chinese scientists have announced they successfully “teleported” information on a photon from Earth to space, spanning a distance of more than 300 miles.”

“There is a security issue here,” Brian Greene, professor of physics and mathematics at Columbia University says, “because the first country to build a quantum computer or a quantum Internet, they will be able to send effectively unhackable messages. And then they can use the technology to try to hack into more conventional messages.”

Great. Just great. Quantum spam.

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserved.

Jul. 12, 2017 Seattle Tax Rich

On Jul. 12, 2017 NPR’s Laurel Wamsley reported “‘Most Regressive’ State, Seattle Passes Tax On Highest Incomes”. “The council voted 9-0 in favor of the tax, which will apply a 2.25 percent tax on annual income over $250,000 on individuals, or $500,000 for couples filing jointly. The city estimates the tax will generate $140 million in new annual revenue.” Daniel Beekman of The Seattle Times reported  ” ‘Seattle should serve everyone, not just rich folks,’ software developer Carissa Knipe told the council before the 9-0 vote, saying she makes more than $170,000 per year.  ” ‘I would love to be taxed,’ the 24-year-old from Ballard testified, drawing applause from a room packed with supporters of the tax.”

Copyright 2017 DJ Cline All rights reserve.